I haven't seen that paper, but I imagine that anything that affects the 1s electrons could affect the electron capture rate. Since the 1s electrons can be perturbed slightly by valence shell events, it's reasonable to expect that you'd have a rare instance of a nuclear reaction that can be influenced by a chemical reaction. I'd also expect the coupling between the two to be pretty weak, because the 1s electrons are really not very sensitive to chemistry.
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