Just Ask Antoine!
Atoms & ions
Energy & change
The quantum theory
Electrons in atoms
The periodic table
- Classify material properties as extensive properties, intensive properties, chemical properties, and physical properties. Give examples of each. Quiz
- Distinguish between gases, liquids, and solids. Explain how these states differ at the molecular level.
- Classify samples of matter as pure substances, homogeneous mixtures, heterogeneous mixtures, compounds, and elements. Quiz
- Use sketches to show how elements, compounds, and mixtures differ at the molecular level.
- Describe six different techniques for separating mixtures.
- Relate the names of elements to their international element symbols.
- Describe the periodic table. Name the major groups and regions on the periodic table, and identify elements belonging to these groups.
- Distinguish between metals, nonmetals, and metalloids using the periodic table.
This lecture introduces some of the basic vocabulary and notation that will be used in the remainder of the course. Classification of matter and technologies for separating mixtures are discussed.
Classifying properties as extensive/intensive or chemical/physical
Properties of Materials
States of Matter
- low density
- easy to expand/compress
- fills container
- high density
- hard to expand/compress
- takes shape of container
- high density
- hard to expand/compress
- rigid shape
- A phase is a region with homogeneous (uniform) properties
- conversions between states are called "phase transitions" or "changes of state"
Classification of matter
- percentage composition always the same from sample to sample
- melt/boil at a characteristic temperature
- note: some compounds decompose before melting or boiling!
- two types
- not chemically decomposable into other elements
- properties do not vary
elements are made of atoms that all have the same atomic number
- obtaining elements from compounds involves chemical change
- electrolysis decomposes some compounds into elements
- some elements displace others from compounds
- writing element symbols
- first 1-2 distinguishing letters in name used for symbol
- only the first letter is uppercase!
- memorize symbols derived from ancient names:
Table 11 element symbols derived from ancient names.
|English name ||symbol ||ancient name |
|antimony ||Sb ||stibium|
|copper ||Cu ||cuprum |
|gold ||Au ||aurum|
|iron ||Fe ||ferrum |
|lead ||Pb ||plumbum|
|mercury ||Hg ||hydrargyrum |
|potassium ||K ||kalium|
|silver ||Ag ||argentum |
|sodium ||Na ||natrium|
|tin ||Sn ||stannum |
|tungsten ||W ||wolfram |
Classification of elements
- periodic table compactly shows relationships between elements
- features of the periodic table
- Periods are horizontal rows on the table.
Groups (or families) are columns on the table.
- elements in the same group are called congeners. They have similar chemical properties.
Blocks are regions on the table.
- important groups:
- alkali metals (Group IA, first column )
- soft, extremely reactive metals
- react with cold water to form hydrogen gas
- form +1 ions
- alkaline earth metals (Group IIA, second column):
- soft, reactive metals
- compounds are a major component of earth's crust
- form +2 ions
- halogens (Group VIIA, next-to-last column):
- poisonous and extremely reactive nonmetals
- fluorine and chlorine are yellow-green gases
- bromine is a volatile red-brown liquid
- iodine is a volatile blue black solid
- all form -1 ions
- noble gases (Group 0, last column)
- all are
- a. k. a. inert gases; almost completely unreactive
- Important blocks:
- transition metals are the elements in the region from the third to twelfth columns.
- hard, dense metals
- less reactive than Group IA and IIA
rare earth metals are the elements in the annex at the bottom of the table.
- lanthanides (annex, top row)
- actinides (annex, bottom row)
main group elements are all elements except the transition and rare earth metals.
- group numbers end with "A"
- metallic properties
malleability: can be hammered into thin sheets
ductility: can be drawn into wire
- conduct heat and electricity well
- one element can occur in several different forms ( allotropes)
Common allotropes of oxygen and carbon. The most stable form at room temperature and pressure is shown in boldface.
||O, nascent oxygen
||O2, oxygen gas
- gaseous elements commonly occur as diatomic molecules (except for the noble gases)
- percentage composition varies from sample to sample
- components are chemically different and retain properties in a mixture
- do not melt/boil at a definite temperature
- two types
- heterogeneous mixtures
- components not uniformly mixed
- more than one phase
- homogeneous mixtures
- components uniformly mixed
- one phase
- also called solutions
|How separation technology was used to solve a deadly mystery||
- mixture's components have different properties
- devise a process that selects components with certain properties
- density, melting point, boiling point, solubility, reactivity, magnetism, polarity
- some basic techniques
- filtration: select components by particle size
- floatation: select components by density
- crystallization: select components by solubility
- extraction: select components by solubility
- distillation: select components by boiling point
- chromatography: select components by affinity for a 'stationary phase'
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General Chemistry Online! Matter
Copyright © 1997-2005 by Fred Senese
Comments & questions to firstname.lastname@example.org
Last Revised 02/23/18.URL: http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/matter/index.shtml